The Forest Glossary contains terms used in Victorian forest management. Click on a letter and scroll to find the definition.
Each term has been assigned a context indicated in brakets.
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
A Licence (Forest Utilisation)
A Forest Produce Licence giving authority to cut or dig and/or take forest produce for commercial purposes. Replaced by a B Licence.
Access Roading (Roading)
Temporary roads which provide access from the permanent road network to a coupe.
Action Statement (Forest Management)
For flora and fauna protection, these are formal statements providing management prescriptions that aim to ensure the long-term conservation of a species. An Action Statement must be prepared for every item that is listed under the Victorian Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988.
Aerial photograph interpretation (Forest Resource Inventory)
Visual analysis, classification and mapping of forest, using photographs taken from an aircraft.
Aesthetic Value (Forest Management)
The response derived from an experience of the environment or particular natural and cultural attributes within it. This response can be either to visual or non-visual elements and can embrace emotional response, sense of place, sound, smell and any other factors having a strong impact on human thoughts, feelings, and attributes.
Aesthetics (Forest Management)
The establishment of a forest on land not previously forested.
Age Classes (Forest Resource Inventory)
Areas or stands of trees originating in a defined year or period of years.
Agroforestry (Forest Management)
A land management system enabling the simultaneous and substantial production of forest and agricultural products from the same land unit.
Air dried timber (Forest Utilisation)
Timber dried by exposure to air in a yard or shed, without artificial heating.
Allocation Order (Forest Utilisation)
The allocation of timber in State forests to VicForests for the purposes of harvesting and selling, or harvesting or selling timber resources.
Land areas of an elevation of 1 220 m or above.
Animal Harbour (Forest Management)
Vegetation, logging slash, or other debris that provides habitat for an animal species. (Usually in reference to a pest species).
Annual allocation (Forest Utilisation)
Annual quantity of timber resource / forest produce made available to a customer and specified in a Forest Produce Licence or Timber Sales Agreement.
Apiary Zone 1 (AZ1) (Apiary)
This is the area of forest within a 1 km radius of a designated high importance site. Most AZ1 sites are located in areas where the density of sites and the usage for apiculture is high and the volume of timber produced is relatively low.
Apiary Zone 2 (AZ2) (Apiary)
This is the area of forest within a 1 km radius of a designated site of medium importance to the (Apiary) industry and are generally of higher elevation. These sites are generally in higher timber volume areas where the density of Apiary sites is quite low. Apiary sites in this area can be relocated as long as the Apiary licence holder is contacted prior to any timber harvesting activities.
Apiary Zone 3 (AZ3) (Apiary)
This is where Zone 3 sites have historically existed however the area is now predominantly dominated by regrowth forest.
Apiary Zone 4 (AZ4) (Apiary)
This is where sites have been identified as suitable for apiculture but have never had a licence on them.
Apiary Zone 5 (AZ5) (Apiary)
This is the remainder of the forest estate where temporary bee sites may be permitted in accordance with the appropriate policy, but the presence of the site shall not restrict other forest management practices in any way.
Apiculture (Forest Management)
Beekeeping for the production of beeswax and honey.
Appearance grade (Forest Utilisation)
Timber valued for aesthetic qualities as well as structural characteristics. (for example furniture, flooring, wall panelling).
Aquifer (Forest Management)
An inclined subsurface porous rock layer between two non-porous layers, containing a substantial amount of water.
Area of supply (Forest Utilisation)
The coupe, block, State forest or other area of land from which the annual allocation can be harvested and specified in a Forest Produce Licence.
Audit (Environmental Management System)
Systematic, independent and documented process for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which the environmental management system audit criteria set by the organisation are fulfilled
Auditor (Environmental Management System)
Person with the competence to conduct an audit.
Australian Forestry Standard (AFS) (Forest Management)
A national certification standard for wood production in Australia’s native forests. It is based on internationally agreed criteria and includes environmental, social, economical and cultural requirements.
Australian Map Grid Reference (AMG) (Forest Management)
Two alpha characters followed by a six digit number. It gives a unique reference to a point location anywhere in Australia.
Authorised Officer (Forest Management)
Any person appointed in accordance with Part 9 of the Conservation Forests and Lands Act 1987.
B Licence (Forest Utilisation)
A Forest Produce License giving authority to cut or dig and/or take forest produce for commercial purposes. Typically issued for a period of up to one (1) year.
Back cut (Forest Utilisation)
Cut made at the back of a tree for directional falling.
Back sawn timber (Forest Utilisation)
Timber sawn so that the growth rings are inclined less than 45 degrees to the wide face.
Basal Area (Silviculture)
The sum of the cross-sectional areas measured at breast height* of the trees in a given stand. Usually expressed as square metres per hectare (m2/ha).
Base Flow (Forest Management)
That proportion of water flowing in a stream which is due to ground-water seepage into the stream channel.
Base Sediment Load (Forest Management)
The amount of sediment moving through a given stream cross-section in a fixed time when only base flow is present.
Batter Slope (Roading)
The slope of the bank of cut earth or soil fill on either side of a constructed road or track.
Strip of trees in a coupe or plantation from which trees are thinned.
Biological Diversity (Forest Management)
Biodiversity (Forest Management)
Biological diversity is the variety of all life forms the plants, animals and micro-organisms, their genes and the ecosystems they inhabit. Genetic diversity is the diversity within each species. Species diversity is the variety of species. Ecosystem diversity is the diversity of different communities formed by living organisms and the relations between them. (Australia's State of the Environment Report 2003)
Biomass (Forest Management)
The total mass of all living matter in an area.
Biophysical (Forest Management)
Biophysical relates to combinations of physical features, such as climate, soils, geology, and landforms, and biological features, such as flora and fauna.
Biosphere (Forest Management)
The parts of the Earth and its atmosphere in which organisms can exist.
Birds eye (Forest Utilisation)
Figure on the surface of wood that has numerous rounded areas resembling small eyes.
The use of a machine to sweep drifts of loose mud, slush or soil from the surface of a road.
Blading off (Forest Utilisation)
Use of a machine to sweep drifts of loose mud, slush or soil from the road surface.
Block (Forest Management)
A major division of a forest, delineated for management purposes and bounded by natural features such as ridges and streams. Usually comprises a number of compartments. (EGFMP) See Also Forest Management Block.
Board (Forest Utilisation)
1. A piece of sawn, hewn or dressed timber of greater width than thickness. Usually 19mm to 38mm thick and 75mm or more wide.
2. Manufactured products supplied as rigid or semi rigid sheets (for example fibreboard and
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) (Forest Management)
A measure of the amount of dissolved oxygen required to oxidise wastes in a sample of water or water or sewage through aerobic biological action. The BOD measures the amount of biologically degradable matter in the sample, but does not measure the amount of wastes that cannot be biologically degraded. BOD is expressed in grams per metre cubed, milligrams per litre, grams per litre or parts per million. It is measured at a standard temperature and over a set period (usually 20°C over 5 days).
Bodies of Standing Water (Forest Management)
Water Lakes and swamps of normally permanent water that contain a distinct aquatic ecosystem and littoral zone although they may dry up in times of drought.
Bole (Forest Utilisation)
The trunk or main stem of a tree.
Borrow Pit (Roading)
An excavation usually made alongside a road in order to obtain gravel or other material for use in road construction or surfacing.
Breast Height (Forest Resource Inventory)
1.3 m above ground level for tree diameter or girth measurement.
Eating or (Grazing) vegetation, including tree seedlings, by livestock or wild animals.
Buffer (Forest Utilisation)
1. A protective margin of vegetation abutting a stream, spring, wetland, body of standing water, swampy ground or an area of rainforest, which protects it from potentially detrimental disturbances in the surrounding forest. Buffer width is defined as horizontal distance from which various operations are excluded.
2. A protective margin of vegetation around the edge of an area which shields or protects the surrounding forest from the effects of, for example, a fire or timber harvesting activities.
3. Retained protective strip of vegetation alongside streams, springs, wetlands, bodies of standing water, swampy ground and rainforest areas in which timber harvesting and machinery are excluded.
Buffer Strip (Forest Utilisation)
Burl (Forest Utilisation)
A hardened, woody outgrowth on a tree, more or less round in form, usually resulting from the entwined growth of a cluster of buds. Such burls are the source of highly figured appearance grade timber.
Burning, head disposal (Silviculture)
Localised or patch burning of tree tops (heads) resulting from harvesting operations, without aiming for continuous burn cover. Used for both fire protection and seedbed creation. Syn. top
Bush (Grazing) (Grazing)
Forest (Grazing) usually attributed to cattle (Grazing) in the Victorian Alps and can include some licences to graze in other areas.
Business day (Forest Utilisation)
A day that is not a Saturday, Sunday or public holiday appointed under the Public Holidays Act
The base of a tree or the large end of a log.
C Licence (Forest Utilisation)
A Forest Produce Licence giving authority to cut or dig and/or take forest for domestic use. Also referred to as a Forest Produce Licence and Licence and Receipt / Tax invoice.
Cable harvesting (Silviculture)
System of harvesting usually used on steep coupes in which logs or trees are moved from the stumps to a landing using winch-driven overhead cables rather than tracked vehicles. Syn. Cable logging, cable yarding
New, undifferentiated tissue produced by the cambial zone at wound margins. Later develops into new wood which grows to cover (occlude) the wound.
Cambium (Forest Utilisation)
A thin layer of tissue between the bark and the wood that repeatedly subdivides to form new wood and bark cells.
Canopy Closure (Silviculture)
The time in the life of a forest stand when the tree crowns (canopy) touch, and shade the ground.
Carbon sequestration (Silviculture)
The incorporation of carbon, via the gas carbon dioxide, into plant/tree tissue.
Carry-over coupe (Forest Utilisation)
A coupe started in one harvesting season but completed in a subsequent season.
Cartage (Forest Utilisation)
Transport of forest produce from State forest.
Cartage docket (Forest Utilisation)
A form that records forest produce sold by quantity (such as firewood).
Catchment (Forest Management)
The natural boundary of the area where all surface water drains to a common point. Ridges form
the boundaries of catchments.
Centre for Forest Tree Technology (CFTT) (Forest Management)
Now the School of Forest and Ecosystem Science responsible for providing information through research for the management of
private and publicly-owned native forest and plantations.
Chain of Custody (CoC) (Sustainable Forest Management)
The process of monitoring the production and distribution of goods from the forest to the end-product, i.e. tracing the origin of the product at each stage of the supply chain, from time of
harvest throughout production, processing, and marketing until the final product reaches the end consumer.
Check Grading (Roading)
1. Checking of previously graded or measured loads to monitor the performance of graders or
2. Audit of graded or measured loads to monitor and assess the performance of accredited Log Graders.
Class 5A Road (Roading)
All weather, surfaced two lane primary road. Speed is not unduly affected by grades or curves.
Class 5B Road (Roading)
All weather, surfaced one lane secondary road. Speed is reduced by grades and curves.
Class 5C Road
Single lane substantially all weather minor road. Road any or may not be surfaced. Speed in considerably reduced by grades and curves.
Class 5D Road (Roading)
Single lane unsurfaced vehicular track. Speed is severely restricted by grades and curves. May or may not be all weather.
Class 5E Road (Roading)
Vehicular track, generally 4WD. Any road or track which does not meet Class 4 standards. May or may not be all weather.
Classified Activities Recreation
Recreational activities that have formal classification standards (ie. four-wheel driving grades of easy, medium, hard or expert).
Clearfelling (Forest Utilisation)
A silvicultural system in which all trees in large areas are harvested in one operation. Trees needed to provide wildlife habitat, streamside reserves or other purposes are retained.
Clinometer (Forest Resource Inventory)
An instrument for measuring vertical angles in field surveying and tree height measurement.
Close grained (Forest Utilisation)
Wood or timber with narrow, inconspicuous growth rings. The term sometimes used to designate wood or timber having small, closely spaced pores, but in this sense the term "fine textured" is
more often used.
See Crown Class
Coarse grained (Forest Utilisation)
Wood or timber with wide, conspicuous growth rings in which there is considerable difference between earlywood and latewood. The term sometimes used to designate wood or timber having large pores, but in this sense the term "coarse textured" is more often used.
Coarse Woody Debris (CWD) (Silviculture)
Piece(s) of dead woody material, e.g tree trunks, limbs, roots, on the ground in stands or in streams. Syn.large woody debris (LWD)
Code of Forest Practices for Timber Production (Forest Utilisation)
Set of principles, procedures, guidelines and standards that specify minimum acceptable practices in harvesting and associated Forest Management operations.
Collapse (Forest Utilisation)
The flattening of single cells or rows of cells during the drying or pressure treatment of wood. Often characterised by a caved in or corrugated appearance in the wood surface.
Compartment (Forest Utilisation)
The smallest permanent planning unit of forest for Forest Management purposes.
The relative growth of trees (stem and canopy) as a consequence of the limited availability of
water, nutrient and light.
Comprehensive Regional Assessment (Forest Management)
A joint assessment of all forest values- environmental, heritage, economic and social- by the Commonwealth and State leading to the establishment of a Comprehensive, Adequate and Representative (CAR) Reserve System, agreements on Forest Management, and the signing of a Regional Forest Agreement (RFA).
Comprehensive, Adequate and Representative (CAR) Reserve System (Forest Management)
A reserve system to conserve all native forest types as well as the plants and animals that depend on them. Comprehensive: the full range of forest communities recognised by an agreed national scientific classification at appropriate hierarchical levels; Adequate: the maintenance of the ecological viability and integrity of populations, species communities; Representative: those sample areas of the forest that are selected for inclusion reserves which should reasonably reflect the biological diversity of the communities.
Compression failure (Forest Utilisation)
Deformation or fracture of wood fibres across the grain resulting from excessive compression along the grain.
Contingency coupe (Forest Utilisation)
A coupe that is available for harvesting in the first year of a Wood Utilisation Plan to allow for changed circumstances.
Continual improvement (Environmental Management System)
Recurring process of enhancing the environmental management system in order to achieve improvements in overall environmental performance consistent with the organisations environmental policy.
Continuous Forest Inventory Plots (CFI Plots) (Forest Resource Inventory)
Plots established throughout the forest on which tree growth information is measured. The plots are measured periodically (at five- or ten-year intervals, for example), and growth on the plot can be determined from the difference between measurements.
1. A change from one tree species or forest type to another in a forest area.
2. The transformation of a log into sawn timber or other product.
Copper chrome arsenate (CCA) (Forest Utilisation)
A wood preservative.
1. n. Coppice - shoots/stems arising from previously dormant strands of bud-producing tissue generally arising from cut or broken stumps.
2. v. To Coppice - Coppicing, to produce coppice, or to cut or remove coppice from a stump.
Cording and matting (Silviculture)
A cover used to protect snig tracks from severe compaction and erosion, especially in wet periods. Cording is small diameter log material,. Matting is head material, bark or u/storey vegetation that is laid on top of the cording.
Core Area (Forest Management)
During the preparation of the East Gippsland (Forest Management) Plan "core areas" within each Site of Significance for Rainforest were identified to provide a more detailed picture of forest areas most important for rainforest conservation. Core areas are based on the largest individual rainforest stands or highest concentration of stands within each Site, rainforest stands surrounded by relatively undisturbed forest or old-growth forest, or sub-catchment boundaries or logical management boundaries such as roads or topographic features.
Corrective Action (Environmental Management System)
Action to eliminate the cause of detected non-conformity.
Corrective Action and Incident Report (CAIRs) (Environmental Management System)
Used when an operational control doesn’t work, a non-conformance is detected in an audit or a SOP checklist, an environmental incident occurs, a legal non-compliance Is detected or a recommendation from an audit process is identified for action.
Coupe (Forest Utilisation)
A temporary planning unit of forest used to identify the area designated for harvesting of forest produce or for regeneration activities.
Coupe Address (Forest Utilisation)
The numerical identity of a coupe. Represented in the format <NNN><NNN><NNNN>
Coverage (Forest Resource Inventory)
A body of spatial data describing a specific subject or theme.
Criteria and Indicators (C&I) (Sustainable Forest Management)
Hierarchical framework as a reference for the assessment of the quality of (Forest Management), serving governments, private sector entities and international bodies to monitor, assess, and report on the status of sustainable (Forest Management) at local, country or regional level. A criterion is a characteristic feature, a set of conditions, or a process, based on which (sustainable)
forest practices may be assessed. An indicator is a quantitative or qualitative parameter which can be assessed in relation to a criterion.
Cross cut (Forest Utilisation)
Mechanical or manual cut across the grain.
Cross drain (Forest Utilisation)
Drain that runs perpendicular, across a road or track to intercept the flow of water and direct it from the road surface.
Cross Draining (Roading)
Interception drains provided across the longitudinal direction of the road to remove any accumulated water.
Cross Sloping, of roads (Roading)
The formation of a road surface to provide slope or camber so that the water will drain from it.
Description of the relative position and condition of a tree crown.
A tree with a crown extending above the general level of the canopy; larger than the average tree in the stand; has a well-developed crown.
Tree with a crown at the general level of the canopy; has medium-sized crown.
A tree shorter than dominant or co-dominant trees; has a small crown extending into the canopy
A tree with a crown entirely below the general level of the canopy
See Crown Class
Crown Land (Forest Management)
1. Land that belongs to the Government.
2. A class of public land, provided for the enjoyment and benefit of other people. Public land
covers the range of Government owned land which includes national and other parks, state
forests, public purpose and more specific type reserves and can also include land set aside for certain roads.
Crowned (in relation to roads) (Roading)
The formation of a road surface by a grader or dozer to a convex-shape from which water will
Cull Falling (Silviculture)
Felling of cull trees to assist regeneration and growth, and for safety reasons.
Cull Tree (Silviculture)
A tree of merchantable size, but which is unmerchantable because of defects in the wood.
Current Annual Increment (CAI) (Forest Resource Inventory)
The actual increase (increment) in wood volume in a tree or stand* over the year just gone, usually expressed in m3/ha.
Customer (Forest Utilisation)
Cutting cycle (Forest Utilisation)
The interval between harvesting events in an uneven-aged stand.
Any injury caused to trees and other forest plants caused by harvesting activities, fire, wind, insect attack or other natural or human induced causes.
Dark stain (Forest Utilisation)
A dark discolouration in a sawlog that does not affect structural integrity but considered a defect in appearance grade timber.
Decay (Forest Utilisation)
The decomposition of wood by fungi.
Decrease in the health and vigour of trees caused by one or more biotic or abiotic factors. Syn. Crown decline
Defect (Forest Utilisation)
A natural feature in a log that may affect the structural soundness and quality of timber.
Defect (External) (Forest Resource Inventory)
Visible features on the tree stem that can adversely affect the quality of potential forest products or the grad of wood products.
Defect (Internal) (Forest Resource Inventory)
Features within the tree stem, the extent of which is only evident when the tree is felled and cut into sections.
Defect allowance (Forest Utilisation)
An allowance (expressed in %) for defect in a sawlog. Used to determine sawlog grade.
Temporary or permanent loss of leaves. May be caused by fire, insects, drought or herbicides.
Degrade (Forest Utilisation)
Any defect that lowers the grade of a log
Dendrochronology (Forest Resource Inventory)
The science of dating and studying annual growth rings in trees.
Density (Forest Utilisation)
As applied to timber, density is the mass of wood substance and moisture enclosed within a piece expressed in kilograms per cubic metre. As the mass will vary dependent on the amount of moisture in the piece, density is often expressed at a specified moisture content, usually 12%.
Departmental harvesting (Forest Utilisation)
Harvesting undertaken for or on behalf of the Department of Environment and Primary Industries.
The width measurement of trees or logs.
Diameter at breast height over bark (DBHOB) (Mensuration)
Tree diameter, including the bark thickness, measure at breast height (1.3m above upper ground
Disjunct (Forest Management)
Disjunct populations are physically separated from each other, that is, there is no gene flow between the populations. They are formed over time due to the appearance of a barrier in a formerly continuous distribution.
Distortion (warp) (Forest Utilisation)
A drying defect caused by the differential shrinkage along the three axes of a piece of wood. Distortion may take the form of cup, bow, twist, spring or diamonding.
District (Forest Utilisation)
An administrative unit for purpose of assigning management responsibility and revenue.
Disturbance (Forest Management)
Any range of factors affecting the condition of natural areas. Disturbance may be natural or human-induced. Natural disturbances include wildfires and rainstorms, and are part of natural ecological processes. Human-induced or "unnatural" disturbance includes timber harvesting, agricultural clearing, mining or (Grazing). The factors that are important when considering disturbance are the origin, duration, and intensity of the disturbance, and its impact on the environment.
Diversity (Forest Management)
A measure of the physical or biological complexity of a system. It refers to a range of features from artefacts to species present.
Document (Environmental Management System)
Information and its supporting medium (can be paper, magnetic, electronic or optical computer disc, photograph or master sample, or a combination there of).
See Crown Class.
Dominant Height (Forest Resource Inventory)
Mean height of the largest trees in a stand. A specified number per unit area are generally selected.
Dormancy, primary (Silviculture)
Condition of viable seeds in which they fail to germinate even in apparently favourable conditions. Dormancy can usually be broken by cold moist stratification.
Dormancy, secondary (Silviculture)
Condition of viable seeds that have relapsed into dormancy after primary dormancy has been broken.
Dormant bud (Silviculture)
A bud enclosed within a stem or branch that does not grow until its dormancy is broken, e.g. by removal of some or all of the normal crown.
Downstream processing (Forest Utilisation)
As used in manufacturing, refers to the processing of materials from primary products into manufactured products. For example, using sawlogs to produce sawn timber and sawn timber to make furniture. See Also Value Adding
Drainage Line (Forest Management)
Shows evidence of the action of periodically flowing water and/or a channel of more than 30 cm depth with clearly defined bed and banks, carrying water only during, or immediately after periods of heavy rainfall. Riparian vegetation may or may not be present.
Dressed timber (Forest Utilisation)
Timber finished to a smooth surface on one or more surfaces.
Drought (Forest Management)
Lack of sufficient water to meet normal requirements.
Dry rot (Forest Utilisation)
A generic term for the decay of timber by fungi that at an advanced stage leaves the wood light and friable. The term is actually a misnomer as all fungi needs considerable moisture to grow.
Duff Layer (Forest Management)
See Humus Layer
Dump (Forest Utilisation)
An area outside of a coupe on which forest produce is stockpiled.
Durability (Forest Utilisation)
The natural resistance of timber to biodeterioration due to fungi, insects and mechanical break down caused by weathering, surface checking and splitting.
Durability class (Forest Utilisation)
Durability is expressed as one of four classes. The value for each species is based on trials of the resistance to both decay and termites in untreated heartwood in the ground. The classes are: Class 1: Timber of the highest natural durability, expected to have a life of at least 25 years and up to 50 years in the ground. Class 2: Timber of high natural durability, expected to have a life of
about 15 to 25 years in the ground. Class 3: Timber of moderate natural durability, expected to have a life of about 8 to 15 years in the ground. Class 4: Timber of low durability, expected to have a life of 1 to 8 years in the ground. The sapwood of all species is regarded to be Class 4.
Early Spacing (Silviculture)
The manual or mechanical thinning of a young, dense stand in which the trees removed are not merchantable. Otherwise known as pre-commercial thinning.
Earlywood (Forest Utilisation)
The less dense, larger celled, first formed part of a growth ring. Also called "springwood".
Earth Road (Roading)
A constructed formation upon which no surfacing material has been laid or spread and which contains inadequate natural surfacing material.
Ecolabelling (Sustainable Forest Management)
A two-step process used to determine when a product can display a special seal or mark signifying that it is less harmful to the environment than most other similar products. The two steps are: establishment of criteria, and certification that a product meets the criteria.
Ecology (Forest Management)
The interaction between living organisms and their environment.
Ecological Maturity (Forest Management)
Ecologically mature forests are stands of trees approaching the limit of their life span. These stands are often either not or only slowly increasing in biomass and they usually support a high diversity of plant growth forms as well as a high diversity of plant and animal species.
Ecological Vegetation Class (EVC) (Forest Management)
The components of a vegetation classification system. They are groupings of vegetation communities based on floristic, structural and ecological features.
Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD) (Forest Management)
Using, conserving and enhancing the community's resources so that ecological processes, on which life depends, are maintained, and the total quality of life, now and in the future, can be increased.
Ecologically Sustainable Forest Management (ESFM) (Forest Management)
The management of forests on all land tenures to maintain the overall capacity of forests to provide goods, protect biodiversity, and protect the full suite of forest values at the regional level.
Ecosystem (Forest Management)
All the organisms (including plants and animals) present in a particular area together with the physical environment with which they interact.
Ecotone (Forest Management)
The boundary between different communities or habitats. This may be quite distinct or a graduation over some distance.
Edaphic Factors (Forest Management)
Environmental conditions determined by the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the soil.
Education Area (Forest Management)
Small areas, representative of different land types, in which education would be the long term primary use and in which other uses would be permitted only when not in conflict with educational use.
Elevated structure Recreation
Any structure with a fall from it greater than 1m.
End grain (Forest Utilisation)
The grain shown on a cross cut surface.
Endangered Species and Communities (Forest Management)
A species which is endanger of extinction and whose survival is unlikely if the causal factors continue. Included are species whose numbers have been reduced to a critical level or whose habitats have been so drastically reduced that the species are deemed to be in danger of extinction.
Endemic (Forest Management)
Species of plant or animal that is native to a particular defined area.
Environment Conservation Council (ECC) (Forest Management)
Replaced by the Victorian Environment Assessment Council (VEAC)
Environmental (Environmental Management System)
Surroundings in which an organisation operates, including air, water, land, natural resources, flora, fauna, humans and their interrelation.
Environmental Aspect (Environmental Management System)
Element of an organisations activities or products or services that can interact with the environment. Also known as Significant Environmental Aspects.
Environmental Impacts (Environmental Management System)
Any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from an organisation’s environmental aspects.
Environmental Management Programme (EMP) (Environmental Management System)
An annual action plan to meet the environmental objectives and targets within a specified.
Environmental Management System ((Environmental Management System)) (Environmental Management System)
Part of an organisations management system used to develop and implement its environmental policy and manage its environmental aspects.
Environmental Objective (Environmental Management System)
Overall environmental goal, consistent with the environmental policy, that an organisation sets itself to achieve.
Environmental Performance (Environmental Management System)
Is the measurable results of an organisations management of its environmental aspects. In the context of environmental management systems, results can be measured against the organisation’s environmental policy, environmental objectives, environmental targets and other environmental performance requirements.
Environmental Policy (Environmental Management System)
Overall intentions and direction of an organisation related to its environmental performance as formally expressed by senior management. The environmental policy provides a framework for action and for the setting of environmental objectives and environmental targets.
Environmental target (Environmental Management System)
Detailed performance requirement, applicable to the organisation or parts thereof, that arises from the environmental objectives and that needs to be set and met in order to achieve those objectives.
Environmentally Sensitive Area (Forest Management)
An area of highly significant environmental value that is sensitive to disturbance. Examples are streams and their associated riparian zones, sites of rare floral or faunal species, or landscapes that are visible from popular view points.
Epicormic Shoot (Silviculture)
Arising from a dormant bud in the stem or branch of a woody plant, often following exposure to increased light levels or fire.
Epiphyte (Forest Management)
A plant which lives on the surface of another plant but does not take water or nutrients from the host.
Equally regular crown form (Forest Resource Inventory)
Eucalypts in a forest stand with approximately equal proportion of the individual tree crowns having highly regular and moderately regular characteristics.
Erodibility of Soil (Forest Management)
A classification of the susceptibility of a soil to erosion when exposed and/or disturbed.
Erosion Hazard (in relation to soil) (Forest Management)
The likelihood of erosion occurring because of the interrelationship of the soil erodibility, rainfall erosivity, slope and soil disturbance.
Eucalypt crown cover (Forest Resource Inventory)
Eucalypt crown cover is expressed as the percentage of crown area projection to land area.
Eucalypt crown form (Forest Resource Inventory)
Crown forms are descriptions of tree growth stages present within a forest stand.
Evapotranspiration (Forest Management)
The discharge of water from the earths surface to the atmosphere by evaporation from water bodies and soil surfaces and by transpiration by plants.
Even-aged forest/stand (Silviculture)
Forest predominantly of the one age. Usually originating as a result of an intense burn or harvesting activity.
Exotic (Forest Management)
A species of plant or animal found in a region where it does not occur naturally. See also Endemic.
Extractive Industry (Forest Management)
Extraction and removal of stone from land if the primary purpose of the extraction or removal is the sale or commercial use of the stone or the use of the stone in construction, building, road or manufacturing works. See also Stone.
Extractives (Forest Utilisation)
A generic term for forest produce that is extracted from a borrow pit or quarry (for example rock, gravel, soil).
Fabric (Forest Management)
The physical material of a place. For example, the fabric of cultural places might be artefact scatter or a hut.
Farm Forestry (Forest Management)
Fauna (Forest Management)
A general term for animals (including reptiles, birds, marsupials, and fish).
Feller Buncher (Forest Utilisation)
A logging machine that fells trees, debranches, cuts to length and groups them ready to be removed with a forwarder or skidder.
Felling (Forest Utilisation)
Manual or mechanical pushing over or cutting down of standing tree.
Feral Animals (Forest Management)
Domestic animal species that have escaped or have been released into natural environments and exist in free living populations.
Fibre saturation point (Forest Utilisation)
The point in the seasoning or wetting of timber at which the cell cavities are free from water but cell walls are still saturated with bound water. It is taken as approximately 25 - 30% moisture content.
Fibreboard (Forest Utilisation)
A generic term including sheet materials of widely varying densities manufactured from refined or partially refined wood or vegetable fibres. Bonding agents may be added to increase strength or to improve other properties.
Fiddleback (Forest Utilisation)
Figure in timber or veneer produced by small, regular undulations in the grain.
Figure (Forest Utilisation)
The pattern produced on the cut surface of wood by annual growth rings, rays, knots, deviations from regular grain such as interlocked and wavy grain, and irregular colouration.
Fill Disposal Area (Roading)
Site where surplus soil and rock material produced as a by-product of road construction operations may be stock-piled or disposed of.
Filter Strip (Forest Management)
1. A narrow strip of ground retained either side of a drainage line or temporary stream. In the strip trees may be felled subject to certain conditions and machinery entry is permitted only in certain circumstances.
2. Protective zone alongside drainage lines or temporary streams in which machinery is not permitted.
Flitch (Forest Utilisation)
A large piece of log, sawn on at least two surfaces, intended for further processing.
Flora (Forest Management)
A general term for plants of a particular area or time.
Flora Reserves (Forest Management)
Areas set aside because of special floristic conservation significance.
Floristic Composition (Forest Management)
A means of classifying vegetation communities according to the presence and absence of certain species.
An artificial channel of non-erodible material located below culvert outlets to prevent erosion of the
Foothill Forest (Forest Management)
Forest with a mature stand height of less than 40 m.
Forest (Forest Management)
1. An area, incorporating all living and non-living components, that is dominated by trees having usually a single stem and a mature or potentially mature stand height exceeding 5 metres, and with existing or potential projective foliage cover of overstorey strata about equal to or greater than 30 per cent. This definition includes Australia's diverse native forests and plantations, regardless of age. It is also sufficiently broad to encompass areas of trees that are sometimes described as woodlands.
2. The feeding of stock from naturally occurring forage material within a forest area. (Grazing)
Forest Certification (Environmental Management System)
Is the voluntary independent assessment of an organisation’s Forest Management activities and operations undertaken for a particular area of forest.
Forest Coupe Plan (Forest Utilisation)
A working plan prepared for each harvesting operation. Includes a map of the area and detailed specifications for harvesting and control and administration.
Forest Estate (Forest Management)
All forests growing on public or private lands.
Forest Produce Licence and Receipt / Tax invoice (Forest Utilisation)
See C Licence.
Forest Management Agencies (Forest Management)
Public agencies that manage forests on Crown land for many uses, including wood production, conservation, flora and fauna protection, recreation and water supply. This includes agencies with responsibility for the management of unallocated and leased Crown lands that are forested.
Forest Management Area (Forest Management)
The basic units for forest planning and management in Victoria. Currently Victoria is divided into 15 (Forest Management) Areas as defined in the Forests Act 1958.
Forest Management Block (Forest Management)
A major division of a forest, delineated for management purposes and bounded by natural features such as ridges and streams. Usually comprised of several compartments.
Forest Management Plan (Forest Management)
1. A plan developed to address the full range of values and uses in State forest by Forest Management Areas.
2. A document developed as a management tool to address the full range of values and uses in State forest by (Forest Management) Area.
Forest Management Zone (Forest Management)
An area of similar physical capability or forest value to which particular Departmental strategy and specific prescriptions may apply. There are three types of zones: the Special Protection Zone, Special Management Zone and General Management Zone.
Forest Monitoring (Sustainable Forest Management)
The collection of forestry information over time, generally on a sample basis by measuring change in an indicator or variable, to determine the effects of resource management treatments in the long term on a periodic and systematic basis. Note: The term is also used at a regional or national scale, e.g. as a tool for collection of information for reporting to the UN FCCC.
Forest Officer (Forest Management)
An authorised officer as defined in the Conservation, Forests and Lands Act 1987.
Forest Operator Licence (Forest Management)
Document identifying the appropriate competency and legality of the operator in the forest.
Forest Operator’s Licence (Forest Utilisation)
Licence issued by the Department of Environment and Primary Industries under Section 52 of the Forests Act 1958 authorising individuals to perform commercial harvesting of forest produce in State forest.
Forest Produce (Forest Utilisation)
All parts of trees and plants, products of trees or plants and extractive materials taken from State forest. Includes stone, gravel, limestone, lime, salt, sand, loam, clay, brick, earth, trees, timber, branchwood, firewood, chips, sawdust, plants, grass, leaves, flowers, fruit, seeds, roots, bark, gun, kino, resin, sap, charcoal, honey, beeswax or oils.
Forest Produce Licence (Forest Utilisation)
The generic name for an authority issued under the Forests Act 1958 to cut or dig and/or remove
Forest Resource Inventory (Forest Resource Inventory)
The classification and measurement of the forest estate for the purpose of providing resource information for: sustainable yield, forest land-use, and resource allocation.
Forest stand (Forest Resource Inventory)
A group of trees within a forest that share common characteristics based on the eucalypt species composition, eucalypt structure and disturbance. For the FRI, these data have been interpreted from aerial photographs.
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) (Sustainable Forest Management)
An international non-governmental organisation founded by the conservation organisation WorldWide Fund for Nature in 1993 to support environmentally appropriate, socially beneficial, and economically viable management of world’s forests. FSC has developed a system of forest certification and product labelling that allows consumers to identify wood and wood-based products from well-managed forests.
Forest Type (Forest Management)
A classification of forests according to their life form and height of the tallest stratum, and the projected foliage cover of the tallest stratum.
Forest/Timber Certification (Sustainable Forest Management)
The process of providing a written documentation attesting officially the quality of forest management in relation to a set of predetermined requirements on sustainable forest management. Note: There are several certification programs emerging across the world. Under most of them, timber or other products sent to market from a certified forest may carry, under tightly controlled conditions, a seal or mark indicating their certified status.
Form, of a tree (Silviculture)
The taper and general shape of a tree, particularly its trunk.
Forwarder (Forest Utilisation)
Rubber tyred forestry machine used to pick up logs during a harvesting operation and transport them to a landing. Used primarily in shortwood thinning operations.
Free moisture (Forest Utilisation)
Moisture which is present in the cell cavities of wood.
Frost Heave (Silviculture)
The lifting of soil as a result of ice formation/expansion in frozen soil. (Small seedlings may be lifted out of the soil [and thereby killed] by frost heave).
Game (Forest Management)
Wildlife species declared as game under the Wildlife Act 1975 to enable them to be hunted.
An opening in the forest canopy which may allow seedling establishment, or release of lignotuberous seedlings.
Gap Selection (Silviculture)
See Group Selection
General Management Zone (Forest Management)
Delineates the area to be managed for the broad range of forest values available in the area. The GMZ is divided into two sub-zones: "Timber Production" where timber harvesting under standard conditions is one of the main uses and "Other Uses" where the forest is unsuitable for sawlog production but where other activities are permitted.
Genotype (Forest Management)
The genetic constitution of an organism, population or species.
Geographic Information System (GIS) (Forest Management)
A system which holds spatially referenced data which can be classified, overlaid, analysed and presented in map, tabular or graphic form.
Geographic Representation Units (GRU) (Forest Management)
Subdivisions created to help analyse the distribution of the reservation system across the region and the degree to which values are represented in that reserve system.
Geographic Units (Forest Management)
Subdivisions of the region that share broadly similar biophysical characteristics, especially in regard to landform, geology, soils and climate.
Geomorphological Characteristics (Forest Management)
Features associated with active landform processes such as erosion.
A seed in the process of germination or a very young seedling.
The beginning of growth of a viable seed, spore or pollen grain.
Germination Percent (Silviculture)
The percentage of sown viable seeds which germinate.
Glue laminated timber (Forest Utilisation)
Laminated timber where the laminations are joined with adhesive
Grade (Forest Utilisation)
The designation of the quality of a sawlog, a piece of timber or other manufactured wood product in accordance with standard grading rules.
Grain (Forest Utilisation)
1. The general direction of the fibres or wood elements relative to the main axis of the piece.
2. The direction, size, arrangement, appearance, or quality of fibres in wood or timber.
Grazing Run/Block (Grazing)
A high country (Grazing) licence.
Green Timber (Forest Utilisation)
Unseasoned timber, with free moisture present in the cell cavities.
Green Crown Level (Forest Resource Inventory)
The level of the lowest living leaves (or needles) in a tree or a stand.
Greenhouse Gases (Forest Management)
Gases that may affect the temperature of the Earths surface and have a large bearing on the Earths climate. They include water vapour, ozone, chlorofluorocarbons, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. The "enhanced greenhouse effect" refers to possible climate change as a result of increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere due to human activity.
Gross coupe area (Forest Utilisation)
Total area of a coupe (measured in hectares).
Gross productive area (Forest Utilisation)
Area of forest that is capable of producing forest produce.
Gross volume (Forest Utilisation)
Volume of sawlog based only on external dimensions.
Groundwater (Forest Management)
All subsurface water occupying the pores and crevices of rock and soil.
Group Selection System (Silviculture)
An uneven-aged silvicultural system in which all trees in a small patch are felled, with the gaps created scattered over the forest compartment. Gap size is no more than about two tree-heights in diameter, so that natural (or induced) seedfall from surrounding trees can be used. Fellings are done every 10-20 years, depending on the forest type.
Growth ring (Forest Utilisation)
1. A ring of dense, dark wood fibres visible on the cross section of a trunk or branch marking a cycle of wood growth.
2. A ring on the cross section of a bole or branch marking a cycle of growth.
Growth Stages (Silviculture)
A system used to describe the life cycle of trees based mainly on crown form - the main ones
being seedling, sapling, pole, spar, mature and senescent. (AHC)
Guidelines (Forest Management)
The directing principles adopted to establish decisions (zoning, actions or prescriptions) for the protection and management of forest values. They are not necessarily mandatory, rather they are to be interpreted and applied on the basis of the information available, and in the context of the protection and management of other values in the forest.
Gum (Forest Utilisation)
A natural exudation, also called kino, produced as a result of fire or mechanical damage.
Gum pocket (Forest Utilisation)
1. A cavity in a tree trunk which contains or contained gum or kino.
2. An accumulation of gum (kino) completely or partially enclosed in the wood.
Gum vein (Forest Utilisation)
A ribbon of gum between growth rings, which may be bridged radially by wood tissue at intervals.
Also known as kino.
Habitat (Forest Management)
The natural home of a plant or animal.
Habitat Tree (Forest Management)
1. A tree that has been identified as providing important habitat for wildlife and which is given additional protection during forest operations
2. A tree identified and protected from harvesting to provide habitat or future habitat for wildlife.
Hardness (Forest Utilisation)
A property of wood that enables it to resist indentation. In is measured in kilonewtons (kN) and is determined by the Janka hardness test.
Hardwood (Forest Management)
1. Plants belonging to the botanical group, angiosperms (or flowering plants). Hardwoods are broad-leafed trees and can be either evergreen or deciduous.
2. Timber from flowering trees (botanically classified as Angiosperm), such as eucalypts, irrespective of the physical hardness of the timber, also used to refer to trees that have such timber.
Hardwood Production Forest (Forest Management)
Those parts of State forest whose primary use is the production of hardwood timber.
Harvesting (Forest Utilisation)
As part of (Forest Management), the felling of trees; the cutting, snigging, preparing, sorting, loading or carting of forest produce from trees which have been felled or which are fallen.
Heartwood (Forest Utilisation)
1. The central core of dead xylem tissue in the trunk and stems of trees. Heartwood does not conduct water/nutrients, serving mainly as mechanical support for the tree.
2. The wood making up the centre part of the tree, beneath the sapwood. Cells of heartwood no longer participate in the life processes of the tree. Heartwood may contain phenolic compounds, gums, resins, and other materials that usually make it darker and more decay resistant than sapwood.
Heath (Forest Management)
Vegetation community dominated mainly by shrubs, and possibly some smaller trees. Common in coastal areas or on sites where the soils nutrient level is low. Heaths often maintain a high diversity of flora and fauna.
Height (Forest Resource Inventory)
The height above upper ground level to the top of a eucalypt crown.
Height Class (Forest Resource Inventory)
A specified range of tree heights. The height classes used by the Statewide Forest Resource Inventory are: Height Class 1a: 60m< Height Class 1b: 51.1-60m Height Class 2a: 46-51m Height Class 2b: 40-45.9m Height Class 3a: 34-39.9m Height Class 3b: 28-33.9m Height Class 4a: 22-27.9m Height Class 4b: 15-21.9m Height Class 5a: 10-14.9m Height Class 5b: 5-9.9m Height Class 6: <5m
Herbicide (Forest Management)
A chemical used to poison plants.
Heritage (Forest Management)
All those things we have inherited from previous generations and which we value. It includes such things as places, objects and folklore.
Heritage River Area (Forest Management)
Land that is a heritage river area under section 5 of the Heritage Rivers Act 1992. Each area of land described in a part of Schedule 1 of the Act is a heritage river under the name specified in that part.
Hewn timber (Forest Utilisation)
Timber without wane, finished to size with hand tools such as an axe.
High Elevation Mixed Species (H(Environmental Management System)) (Silviculture)
Mixed eucalypt species forests in Victoria generally above 700m elevation. but also may include some forests in frost hollows and on wetter aspects greater than 600m. Major component species include messmate, cut-tail, and mountain grey gum. Successful eucalypt regeneration generally occurs from spring germination.
Highly regular crown form (Forest Resource Inventory)
Eucalypts in a forest stand with individual tree crowns having a generally compact, smooth textured, circular to oval shape and at least three quarters of their boundaries intact.
Hollow (Forest Management)
An opening in the trunk or branches of a tree often formed when a branch dies and falls off.
Humus Layer (Forest Management)
Layer of organic matter on the soil surface consisting mainly of decomposing leaf and plant litter.
Operations on existing roads which will result in a significant improvement or upgrade of that road. This includes realignment of existing roads and replacement of existing culverts or bridges to a significantly higher specification.
In coupe road (Forest Utilisation)
A temporary, formed road that is inside the coupe boundary.
Increment (Forest Resource Inventory)
The increase in volume, diameter, height or other measure of individual trees or stands during a given period.
Indicator Points (Forest Utilisation)
Penalty points allocated to a holder of a Forest Operator’s Licence for a breach of the Timber Harvesting Regulations, 2000.
Intact Native Vegetation (Forest Management)
Defined as "native vegetation" in Section 8-6.4 of the State chapter of all planning schemes. See also pages 15-17 of NRE publication "Timber Production on Private Land" October 1993.
Integrated harvesting (Forest Utilisation)
Harvesting of more than one type of forest produce in a single operation.
Intensive Management (Silviculture)
Silvicultural intervention in a forest or stand beyond the minimum required to ensure re-stocking. It can include some or all of: site preparation, planting, fertilising, weed control, spacing and thinning.
Intensive Recreation Site (Forest Management)
A small localised forest site developed specifically for recreation eg. picnic ground.
Interested Party ((Environmental Management System) related) (Environmental Management System)
Person or group concerned with or affected by the environmental performance of an organisation.
Interlocked grain (Forest Utilisation)
Grain where the angle of fibres periodically changes or reverses in successive layers.
International Standards Organisation (ISO) (Environmental Management System)
International Standards Organisation.
Irregular Crown (Forest Resource Inventory)
Trees which have experienced a significant loss of crown foliage and/or individual large branches. Several stages of crown break and replacement may be evident. Usually this results in an irregular crown shape.
Irregular crown form (Forest Resource Inventory)
Eucalypts in a forest stand with individual tree crowns having an irregular shape and less than half of their boundaries intact.
Irregular grain (Forest Utilisation)
Grain where the fibres contort and twist around knobs, butts, curls, and so on.
ISO 14001 Environmental management systems – (Environmental Management System)
Is a management system that helps an organisation to identify environmental risks and impacts that may occur as a result of its activities and ensure they are routinely managed.
Joinery (Forest Utilisation)
Finished timber fixtures of buildings, such as doors, windows, panelling, cupboards, etc.
Kerf (Forest Utilisation)
The cut made by a saw blade.
Kiln (Forest Utilisation)
A chamber used for drying timber in which the temperature and humidity of the circulated air can be controlled.
Kiln Dried (Forest Utilisation)
Dried artificially in a kiln.
Kino ( or Kino vein) (Forest Utilisation)
Red-coloured phenolic exudate (fluid) found in veins or pockets in wood of some eucalypt species.
Knot (Forest Utilisation)
A cross section of a branch that is embedded in sawn timber. The shape, of the knot as it appears on a cut face depends on the angle of the cut relative to the long axis of the knot.
Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) (Forest Utilisation)
A structural lumber manufactured from veneers laminated into a panel with the grain of all veneers running parallel to each other.
Land Capability (Forest Management)
A term used to describe the capability of a Land System to support a particular use or activity without being degraded.
Land Conservation Council (LCC) (Forest Management)
A body set up under the Land Conservation Council Act 1970 to advise the State Government on public land use. The LCC has been replaced by the Victorian Environmental Assessment Council (VEAC).
Land Degradation Hazard Class (Forest Management)
Classification of similar land types on the basis of susceptibility to damage such as erosion from soil disturbances resulting from timber harvesting and related operations.
Land System (Forest Management)
A mapping unit that contains a pattern of land components each of which has little variation in climate, lithology, landform, soil and indigenous vegetation.
Land Use (Forest Management)
The primary level of public land classification in Victoria. Categories are determined by government through the Victorian Environment Assessment Council (VEAC). The process establishes National Parks, State forest and other categories.
Landing (Forest Utilisation)
Area within a coupe where parts of trees are sorted, processed and loaded for transport.
Landscape Management Zone (Forest Management)
A composite landscape unit based upon distinct combinations of specific scenic quality classes, public sensitivity levels, and seen area disturbance zones.
Landscape Sensitivity (Forest Management)
Areas identified by a visual resources inventory as having scenic quality and visual sensitivity. They are usually areas that are readily visible from high-usage recreational facilities such as look-outs, walking tracks, tourist roads, or campsites.
Latewood (Forest Utilisation)
The denser wood formed during the later stages of growth of each annual ring.
Licence fee (Forest Utilisation)
A fee payable for an annual allocation charged on issue of a Forest Produce Licence.
Licensee (Forest Utilisation)
Person, persons or company named on a Forest Produce Licence or Timber Sales Agreement.
Light Demanding (Silviculture)
A plant species requiring full sunlight to regenerate and/or grow vigorously- syn. shade-intolerant.
Woody swelling at the base of the stem on many eucalypt species, at or below the soil level, bearing dormant buds. (The development of the buds into shoots is stimulated by destruction or loss of the top growth).
Limnology (Forest Management)
The study of the physical and biological features of lakes and other fresh waters.
Listed (Forest Management)
A species, process or community listed in the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988. A taxon or community of flora or fauna is eligible to be listed if it is in a demonstrable state of decline which is likely to result in extinction or if it is significantly prone to future threats which are likely to result in extinction. ) See also Threatening process.
Lithology (Forest Management)
The general characteristics of rock formations, such as composition and texture, and the
sequence in which the formations were laid down.
Log dockets (Forest Utilisation)
An accountable document used to record forest produce that is sold by volume.
Log grade (Forest Utilisation)
Log grading (Forest Utilisation)
Determination of the quality of a sawlog in accord with defined specifications.
Log grading coordinator (Forest Utilisation)
Person responsible for auditing log grading performance and providing technical advice on log grading issues.
Log length (Forest Utilisation)
Distance from end to end of a sawlog.
Log Sales (Forest Utilisation)
System for recording and accounting of sales of forest produce used by DEPI/VicForests.
Log sample docket (Forest Utilisation)
An accountable document used to record the results of a check or regrading of a load of sawlogs.
Logging team leader (Forest Utilisation)
The person responsible for employees of a harvesting contractor in the forest.
Longitudinal (Forest Utilisation)
Generally parallel to the direction of wood fibres
Loose gum vein (Forest Utilisation)
1. Ribbon of gum or kino between growth rings that is not bridged radially by woody tissue or which is bridged radially by widely spaced woody tissue.
2. A ribbon of gum or kino between growth rings and associated with extensive discontinuity of wood tissue. The sawlog grading card includes gum pockets and shakes in this category.
Low Elevation Mixed Species (LEMS) (Silviculture)
1. Forests that are usually below 750 m elevation except for some forests in frost hollows and on wetter aspects between 600 - 750 m which act as HEMS. Most successful regeneration occurs from autumn germination.
2. Mixed eucalypt species forests in Victoria that are generally below 700 m elevation. Major component species include: stringybarks, gums, peppermints, and silvertop. Most successful regeneration occurs from autumn germination.
Lyctid susceptibility (Forest Utilisation)
Timber is classified according to its susceptibility to attack by lyctid borer. Australian Standards limit the use of lyctid susceptible sapwood throughout Australia.
The localised, manual removal of forest litter and/or vegetation combined with the sowing of seed in small spots on a coupe for regeneration of the tree species.
Operations on existing roads that maintain the standard and classification of the road. These include such operations as grading, potholing, verge slashing, culvert cleaning and sign replacing.
Management (Forest Management)
The application of policies and techniques to control or regulate the use of resources in an area.
Management Actions (Forest Management)
Management Actions commit NRE to implementing a number of actions which will further
enhance the management of State forest.
Management Guidelines (Forest Management)
Management Plans (Forest Management)
The range of plans dealing with strategic and operational issues of (Forest Management) prepared for specific regional or local areas and integrating environmental and commercial objectives.
Management Prescriptions (Forest Management)
Management Prescriptions detail specific conditions or standards which are to apply to forest operations in the vicinity of certain threatened flora or fauna. More detailed prescriptions are established at the local level and are reflected in Wood Utilisation Plans.
Management Procedures (Forest Utilisation)
1. A document setting out the environmental and operational requirements that must be followed for timber harvesting and associated activities in State forest.
2. A document that provides detailed prescriptions for management activities as required by the Code of Forest Practices.
Management Unit (Forest Management)
An administrative unit comprising two or more forest blocks distinguished for some forest management purpose (eg. subcatchment management).
Management Zone (Forest Management)
See Forest Management Zone.
Mapsheet (Forest Resource Inventory)
The extent of a standard 1:25 000 or 1:100 000 scale maps.
Mature Forest (Forest Resource Inventory)
A description of a forest stand and/or individual trees where the tree crowns are well foliated and rounded. The height and crown development of the trees has effectively ceased (compared with regrowth) but decline of the crown has not yet significantly begun (as in the senescent or over mature growth stage). Forest at or beyond nominal rotation age* but before it reaches the overmature stage. (Generally 60-150 years, and MAI and CAI will be declining).
Mean Annual Increment (MAI) (Forest Resource Inventory)
The total increment up to a given age divided by that age; average annual increment to that age. (m3/ha).
Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF) (Forest Utilisation)
A panel product manufactured from ligno-cellulosic fibres combined with a synthetic resin or other suitable binder.
Merchantable (Forest Utilisation)
1. Forest produce for which a market exists.
2. Tree or part of a tree, from which merchantable forest produce can be obtained.
Mesic (Forest Management)
Mesic plants are adapted to survive on terrestrial sites with fair to good water supply.
Mill site (Forest Utilisation)
The location of a sawmill or other manufacturing facility used to process forest produce.
Minister (Forest Management)
The responsible Minister administering the Forests Act 1958.
Minor forest produce (Forest Utilisation)
Forest produce other than sawlogs or residual logs.
Mixed age stand (Silviculture)
See uneven-aged stand
Mixed Forest (Silviculture)
A stand of forest that occurs between two distinct types eg between Cool Temperate Rainforest
and Wet Sclerophyll Forest.
Mixed Species Forest (Forest Resource Inventory)
Forest which has two or more eucalypt species commonly found within the canopy. Generally consisting of peppermint, messmate, gum or stringybark species. Does not include ash, red gum or box ironbark forests.
Mixed-Age Stand (Silviculture)
A stand where trees of various ages are present, that is, the stand has resulted from regeneration over a long period.
Moderately regular crown form (Forest Resource Inventory)
Eucalypts in a forest stand with individual tree crowns having a generally compact, smooth textured, circular to oval shape and half to three quarters of their boundaries intact.
Moisture content (Forest Utilisation)
The weight of moisture contained in a piece of timber expressed as a percentage of oven dry weight.
Mountain Forest (Forest Resource Inventory)
This forest type is found throughout the higher elevations of Victoria, descending to a general elevation of about 600 m but extending as low as 400 m on sheltered southern slopes. Alpine Ash is the dominant eucalypt above 950 m whereas Mountain Ash is usually dominant below this. Shining gum occurs either in pure stands or in mixtures at the junction of the zones. Common
understorey plants include silver wattle, blanket leaf, musk daisy bush, mountain correa, forest wire grass and numerous ferns.
Multiple Use Forests (Forest Management)
Forests managed for a combination of values and uses so that a wide range of community
expectations are met.
National Estate (Forest Management)
Those places, being components of the natural or cultural environment of Australia that have aesthetic, historic, scientific or social significance or other special value for future generations as well as the present community.
National Forest Inventory (Forest Management)
A joint Commonwealth - State program responsible for collating comprehensive information about the location and diversity of Australia's forest estate.
National Forest Policy Advisory Forum (NFPAF) (Forest Management)
A national advisory body with balanced representation from stakeholder groups to provide advice on specific forest product industry and conservation issues.
National Forest Policy Statement (Forest Management)
A joint Commonwealth - State and Territory Government response which outlines agreed objectives and policies for Australia's public and private forests.
National Park (Forest Management)
Land described as a national park on Schedule Two of the National Parks Act 1975. These are generally extensive areas of land nationwide significance because of their outstanding natural features and diverse land types.
National Wilderness Inventory (Forest Management)
Identifies areas of quality wilderness across Australia. Provides wilderness resource information to assist wilderness conservation and management planning in all States and Territories where the program has been conducted on a cooperative basis with the Australian Heritage
Native (Forest Management)
A species of plant or animal that naturally occurs in a region. See also Endemic, Exotic.
Native Forest (Forest Management)
Any locally indigenous forest community containing the full complement of native species and habitats normally associated with that community, or having the potential to develop these characteristics.
Nature Conservation Reserves (Forest Management)
Areas of publicly owned land, including forested land, managed primarily for nature conservation and providing multiple benefits and uses, such as recreation and water catchment but excluding wood production.
Net merchantable area Mensuration
The area of State forest: with merchantable eucalypt, with a mature eucalypt forest stand height >28m, available for timber harvesting under the Code of Forest Practices for Timber Production. Areas excluded from timber harvesting by the Code are: slopes greater than 30, stream buffers (generally 20 or 40m), and rainforest.
Nett coupe area (Forest Utilisation)
The gross coupe area less allowances made for harvesting exclusions.
Nett sawlog volume (Forest Utilisation)
The gross sawlog volume less allowances made for the amount of defect in the sawlog.
Niche (Forest Management)
A place or position suited to a specific plant or animal.
Nonconformity (Environmental Management System)
Non-fulfilment of a requirement.
Noxious Weed (Forest Management)
A weed declared by legislation to be harmful (especially for agriculture) and which must therefore be eradicated from all land and must not be propagated or planted.
Old-growth Forest (Forest Management)
Forest which contains significant amounts of its oldest growth stage - usually senescent trees- in the upper stratum and has been subjected to any disturbance, the effect of which is now negligible.
Open grained (Forest Utilisation)
Common classification of woods with large pores in the grain. Also known as coarse textured.
Organisation (Environmental Management System)
Company, corporation, firm, enterprise, authority or institution, or part or combination thereof, whether incorporated or not, public or private, that has its own functions and administration.
A strip within a coupe from which all trees are harvested, usually as part of a thinning operation. Often used in plantations when one or more rows of trees will be removed.
Outrow and Bay Method (Silviculture)
Thinning practice aimed at minimising damage to retained stems and ensuring coverage of the entire coupe. Out rows ( usually 4-5 m wide) have all trees removed and trees are thinned from the retained bays usually 12-14 m wide).
Outsloping (Forest Utilisation)
Steep slope or cambering of a road or track to drain water to the outside of that road or track.
Outsloping (of roads or tracks) (Roading)
The formation of a road or track surface to provide slope or camber so that water will drain from it
on the outside of the road/track.
Overmature (Forest Resource Inventory)
A growth stage of a forest stand or individual tree that is characterised by declining crown leaf area and irregular crown shape due to loss of branches and epicormic growth.
Trees (or vegetation in general) in the upperstratum of the forest.
Overstorey Removal (Silviculture)
Removing the larger/older trees to allow the retained trees (e.g. poles, saplings) to continue growing to form the next crop.
Standing mature trees remaining after harvesting. Can refer to seed trees, habitat trees, culls or retained merchantable trees.
Overwood Basal Area (Silviculture)
The basal area of trees (m2/ha) left behind after the harvesting operation is complete. Gives an indication of the competition between the old trees and the regeneration.
Particle board (Forest Utilisation)
A pressed sheet material made from particles of timber laid on a substrate in geometric patterns.
Payment averaging (Forest Utilisation)
A non-standard method for the payment of royalties.
Peel (Forest Utilisation)
Converting a log into veneer by rotary cutting.
Periodic Annual Increment (PAI) Mensuration
The average annual timber increment for any defined short period, such as five years.
Permanent Road (Roading)
Roads and tracks on public land that have been identified by DEPI as required for permanent access to the forest for a range of uses. These include those roads and tracks identified as suitable for general public access, and operational roads that are primarily for DEPI management purposes, but also available for other forest users including the timber industry.
Permanent Streams (Forest Management)
Rivers and streams with a variable catchment area and which flow on average greater than 90% of the year
Permeability, of soils (Forest Management)
Soils with high permeability and low potential for overland flow: Soils which are able to directly absorb large quantities of water without producing any significant run-off. The soils will be generally well structured with a friable surface and a high organic matter content. The soil will be relatively resistant to compaction and the subsequent decrease in permeability as a result of all but major snigging operations. Soils with low permeability and high potential for overland flow: Soils which will not readily absorb heavy falls of rain nor small surface flows of water. The soils will be generally poorly structured with poorly defined aggregation. These soils will readily produce run-off from even lightly used snig tracks.
Phenotype (Forest Management)
The total observable characteristics of an organism, produced by genetic inheritance, environmental influences or other factors. The phenotype may be considered to be the physical and social reflection of the genotype.
Pier (Forest Utilisation)
A column or post supporting a superstructure such as floor bearers, beams, etc., or an internal support for a bridge.
Pile (Forest Utilisation)
A structural timber driven deep into rock or soil to provide secure foundation for structures.
Pioneer species (Silviculture)
A plant species that establishes on bare or disturbed sites, colonising them until replaced or overtaken by other species.
Pipe (Forest Utilisation)
Defect in the core of a sawlog.
Pith (Forest Utilisation)
The small soft core occurring in the centre of a bole, branch, twig or log.
Plantation (Forest Management)
A forest stand created by the regular placement of seedlings or seed. of either native or exotic species selected for their wood-producing properties and managed intensively for timber production. Intensively managed stands of trees of either native or exotic species
Plantation Development Notice (Forest Management)
A notice that must be lodged with the Responsible Authority, before a private plantation is established for the first time, in a situation where a planning permit is not required. The notice must contain the information set out in Section 184.108.40.206 of the Code.
Plus Tree (Silviculture)
A phenotype tree judged to be unusually superior in some quality or qualities.
Plywood (Forest Utilisation)
An assembled product made up of veneers of timber glued together so that the grain of alternate
layers is a right angles.
Point site (Forest Management)
A site that covers a limited area, expressed as points when mapped at a large scale.
Pole (Forest Utilisation)
1. An immature tree below sawlog size (usually 25-40 cm dbhob).
2. A round timber column.
Population (Forest Management)
A geographically or socially disjunct group of interacting organisms of the same species that
occupy a definable area.
Potential sawlog (Forest Utilisation)
Tree with the potential to produce a sawlog in the future.
Precautionary Principle (Forest Management)
As defined in the Intergovernmental agreement on the Environment. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible environmental damage, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing measures to prevent environmental degradation.
Presumed Extinct (Forest Management)
A species is presumed extinct at a particular time if: it has not been definitely located in nature during the preceding 50 years; or it has not been definitely located in nature during the preceding 10 years despite thorough searching during that period.
Prevention of pollution (Environmental Management System)
Use of processes, practices, techniques, materials, products, services or energy to avoid, reduce or control (separately or in combination) the creation, emission or discharge of any type of pollutant or waste, in order to reduce adverse environmental impacts
Preventive Action (Environmental Management System)
Action to eliminate the cause of a potential nonconformity.
Private Land (Forest Management)
For the purposes of the Code of Forest Practices for Timber Production, Private land comprises:
1. Unalienated land of the Crown that is managed and controlled by the Minister for Environment, the Minister for Victorian Communities, or the Secretary of Environment and Sustainability.
2. Unalienated land of the Crown occupied under a lease from the Crown; land vested or leased by the Victorian Plantations Corporation or its successor in law;
3. Land alienated from the Crown.
Procedure (Environmental Management System)
Specified way to carry out an activity or a process
Production (Forest Utilisation)
Harvesting of forest produce.
Promoted Activities Recreation
Recreational activities that are either present or absent (ie. picnicking, bird watching) . They differ from ‘classified activities’ in that they do not have formal classification standards.
Protected Wildlife (Forest Management)
All wildlife other than those kinds or taxon which-
(i) is a pest animal within the meaning of the Catchment and Land Protection Act 1994; or
(ii) the Governor in Council from time to time by Order published in the Government Gazette declares to be unprotected wildlife; or
(iii) are specified by Order of the Governor in Council published in the Government Gazette pursuant to section 7A;
The original geographic source of seed or other genetic material.
Public Authority (Forest Management)
Includes Government departments, water or sewerage authorities, municipal councils and public statutory bodies.
Public Forest (Forest Management)
Any forest on Crown land for which management responsibility has been delegated to government agencies, local governments or other instrumentalities.
Public Land (Forest Management)
Unalienated land of the Crown managed and controlled by the Minister for Environment, the Minister for Victorian Communities, or the Secretary of Environment and Sustainability, whether or not occupied under a licence or other right (but not including land occupied under a lease, or land vested or leased by the Victorian Plantations Corporation or its successor in law).
Pulp (Forest Utilisation)
Wood fibre chemically treated for use in the manufacture of paper or cardboard.
Pulpwood (Forest Utilisation)
Timber cut and prepared primarily for the manufacture of wood pulp and for further processing to make paper or reconstituted wood product such as fibreboard.
Quarry (Forest Utilisation)
An open excavation for removing extractives such as rock for building stone and gravel.
Quarter (Forest Resource Inventory)
A convention used in field inventory to subdivide a standing tree into recognisable longitudinal sections extending from ground level to top point. From the defined "front" of the tree the quarters are 1 and 2 (for the sections to the left and right of the viewer respectively) and from the defined "back" of the tree, 3 and 4 (for the sections to the left and right of the viewer respectively).
Quarter cut (Forest Utilisation)
A method of slicing veneers whereby the average inclination of the growth rings to the wide face is greater than 45 degrees.
Quarter sawn timber (Forest Utilisation)
Timber in which the average inclination of the growth rings to the wide face is not less than 45 degrees.
Radial (Forest Utilisation)
Coincident with a radius from the axis of the tree or log to the circumference.
Radially sawn (Forest Utilisation)
Timber sawn on the radius from the central axis of the tree or log to the circumference, perpendicular to the growth rings. The resulting pieces are generally triangular in shape.
Rainfall Erosivity (Silviculture)
The potential for rainfall to cause soil erosion estimated as a function of rainfall amount and rainfall intensity.
Rainforest (Forest Management)
1. Rainforests are defined ecologically as closed (>70 percent projective foliage cover) broad-leaved forest vegetation with a continuous rainforest tree canopy of variable height, and with a characteristic diversity of species and life forms. Rainforest canopy species are defined as shade-tolerant tree species which are able to establish below an undisturbed canopy, or in small canopy gaps resulting from locally recurring minor disturbances, such as isolated windthrow or lightning strike, which are part of the rainforest ecosystem. Such species are not dependent on fire for their regeneration.
2. Closed broadleaved forest vegetation with more or less continuous rainforest tree canopy of variable height, and with a characteristic composition of species and life forms.
Rainforest Canopy Species (Forest Management)
Shade tolerant tree species which are able to regenerate below an undisturbed canopy, or in small canopy gaps resulting from locally recurring minor disturbances, such as isolated windthrow or lightning strike, which are part of the rainforest ecosystem. Such species are not dependent on fire for their regeneration.
Rainforest Conservation Areas (Forest Management)
Areas where timber harvesting will be excluded to protect stands of rainforest from potential damage.
Rare Ecosystem (Forest Management)
An ecosystem where its geographic distribution involves a total range of generally less than 10,000 ha, a total area of generally less than 1000 ha or patch sizes of generally less than 100 ha, where such patches do not aggregate to significant areas.
Rays (Forest Utilisation)
A ribbon like arrangement of cells, usually orientated in the radial direction.
Reconditioning treatment (Forest Utilisation)
A high temperature / high relative humidity (100%) treatment applied after drying to restore the shape of collapsed or distorted wood.
Record (Environmental Management System)
Document stating results achieved or providing evidence of activities performed.
Recovery Plan (Forest Management)
The Commonwealth, under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 must prepare and implement a recovery plan for: (a) each listed native species (other than a species that is presumed extinct); or (b) each listed ecological community; that occurs in Commonwealth areas. If the listed native species or listed ecological community also occurs outside Commonwealth areas, the Commonwealth must seek the co-operation of the States in which the species or community occurs outside Commonwealth areas with a view to the joint preparation and implementation of a recovery plan for the species or community throughout Commonwealth areas and those States.
Reference Areas (Forest Management)
Where the Minister, after having considered a recommendation of the Victorian Environmental Assessment Council under the Victorian Environmental Assessment Council Act 2001, is of the opinion that any area of public land should be preserved in its natural state as far as is possible, because the area is of ecological interest and significance. The Minister may recommend to the Governor in Council that that area be proclaimed to be a reference area.
The re-establishment of forest cover by planting or sowing on previously cleared or poorly forested land, with species native to the locality (unless an adverse microclimate requires the use of alternative native species for survival and growth.
Reforestation Plan (Silviculture)
A plan which sets out details for reforestation for a particular site, covering aspects such as site preparation, establishment and tending.
Refugia (Forest Management)
Places that offer protection for flora from (geologically) recent climate change and associated environmental shifts, such as increased frequency of fire.
1. n. The young regrowth of trees and other vegetation following disturbance of the forest such as timber harvesting or fire.
2. v. Regenerate - to renew the forest by natural or artificial means.
Regional Director (Forest Management)
The senior field manager of any one of the largest geographical units defined as State level for DEPI administrative purposes.
Regional Forest Agreement (RFA) (Forest Management)
An agreement between the Commonwealth and a State Government about the long term management and use of forests in a region.
Regional Park (Forest Management)
An area of Public Land, readily accessible from urban centres or a major tourist route, set aside primarily to provide recreation for large numbers of people in a natural or semi-natural surroundings.
Regrowth Crown (Forest Resource Inventory)
Trees with narrow, conical crowns with relatively high individual crown densities.
Regrowth Forest (Forest Resource Inventory)
Forest stands regenerated either naturally or by seeding following death or removal of the forest overstorey. A growth stage of a forest stand or individual tree in which the crowns have a narrow conical form and where trees are actively growing. A forest originating from fire, disturbance or harvesting actively below the nominal rotation age (generally 1-60 years).
Regular crown form (Forest Resource Inventory)
Eucalypts in a forest stand with individual tree crowns having a generally compact, smooth textured, circular to oval shape and at least half of their boundaries intact. When the regular crown form occupies 30% or more of the forest stands crown cover, it is further divided into highly regular, equally regular and moderately regular crown form sub-classes.
Rehabilitation (Forest Utilisation)
Restoration and revegetation of a site of disturbance.
Relict (Forest Management)
A surviving individual, population, community or species that is characteristic of an earlier period in evolutionary history. (of a distribution) An area to which a once more widespread population, species or community is now defined. Also Relic.
Remoteness (Forest Management)
Describes isolation from the sights, sounds and obvious evidence of human activity. Areas with remoteness qualities offer visitors the experience of independence, closeness to nature, tranquillity, and self reliance.
Reserved Forest (Forest Management)
Land proclaimed as reserved forest under Section 42(1) of the Forests Act 1958.
Reserves (Forest Management)
Areas such as national parks and nature conservation reserves which are subject to an established degree of
protection from disturbance.
Residual Log (Forest Management)
Logs, not of sawlog quality, produced as a consequence of a sawlog harvesting operation. Unlike pulpwood the end-use of a residual log is not specified.
Resource (Forest Utilisation)
Material required or needed, stock that can be drawn on; anything for which there is a perceived present or future use; can be either renewable (can obtain more, like water, air or timber) or non-renewable (can be used only once, no more can be obtained, like coal, bauxite, natural oil and gas from fossil sources).
Retained Trees (Silviculture)
Trees retained on a coupe during a harvesting operation because they are unmerchantable, are to serve as seed trees or wildlife habitat trees, or have been selected to grow on after thinning.
Richness (Forest Management)
A measure of the abundance of individual elements within a particular place. For instance, the species richness of an ecological vegetation class (EVC) is the number of species which typically occur within that EVC.
Rill (Forest Management)
A small stream or rivulet. In soil erosion rills appear in the top soil.
Rip (Forest Utilisation)
To cut along the grain
Riparian (Forest Management)
Of, or located on, the banks of rivers.
Riparian Vegetation (Forest Management)
1. Vegetation that requires free or unbound water, or conditions that are noticeably moist along the margins of streams, drainage lines, and lakes.
2. Vegetation that occurs on the banks of a river or stream or on the shore of a lake.
Road Construction (Forest Management)
Capital works that involve the construction of a new section of road or new road that will form part of the DEPI permanent road network.
Road Improvement (Forest Management)
Operations on a road that either improve the road classification, or significantly improve the condition of a section of road. In general these works are considered capital works, and include such operations as major re-surfacing, major corner widening, significant bridge or other stream crossing structure works, including bridge replacement.
Roading Advisory Committee (Roading)
(Roading) Advisory Committees, which include representatives from sawlog and residual log licensees, timber harvesting contractors and Australian Paper Plantations Pty Ltd, advise Senior Foresters on planning for and expenditure on these roads.
A bed of rocks located below culvert outlets to prevent rill batter erosion; similar to flume.
A set of tines, usually mounted on the front of a bulldozer, used for cultivation of soil and removal of slash/vegetation for site preparation.
Rotary cut veneer (Forest Utilisation)
Veneer that is cut in a lathe, which rotates a log chucked in the centre against a knife. This method of peeling is used to produce decorative veneers and is a common method of manufacturing veneers for plywood.
Rough sawn (Forest Utilisation)
Surface condition of wood as it leaves the saw, ie. not dressed or final sawn.
The mechanical pushing of logging slash into heaps or windrows.
Roundwood (Forest Utilisation)
Sawlogs, pulpwood, residue logs, etc. in the round form.
Royalty (Forest Utilisation)
A payment made for the value of timber harvested.
Road Class A (Roading)
Road Any section of a road with a surface of bitumen, concrete, metal, gravel or material similar to gravel on which there is sufficient width of formation for two vehicles to pass without difficulty, and on which speed in not unduly reduced by grades, curves or conditions of surface or urban and residential areas.
Road Class B (Roading)
Road Any section of road with a surface of bitumen, concrete, metal, gravel, sand or natural surfacing material on which there is sufficient width of formation for two vehicles to pass only with difficulty or speed (compared with "A" Class roads) is reduced by grades, curves or urban and residential areas and to which none of the conditions applicable to "C" Class roads applies. Any section of an earth road on which there is sufficient width of formation for two vehicles to pass without difficulty and on which speed is not unduly reduced by grades, curves or condition of surface.
Road Class C (Roading)
Road Any section of road where there is insufficient width of formation for two vehicles to pass or speed (as compared to Class "A" road) is considerably reduced by grade, curves or condition of surface, eg. corrugations and rutting. Any section of road where the road surface is conducive to excessive tyre wear.
Road Class D (Roading)
Road Unformed bush track or roughly formed bulldozer trail. Any section of an earth road on which there is insufficient width for two vehicles to pass and speed is severely restricted by grades, curves or condition of surface.
Royalty Zone (Roading)
A group of logging areas for which, for each product, a common royalty rate can be applied.
Run-off (Forest Utilisation)
1. The proportion of rain falling in a catchment which flows across the surface rather than infiltrating the soil; a major agent of water erosion.
2. Short graded channel angled away from road edges to divert water off the road.
Run-off (with regard to road construction) (Roading)
1. A short graded channel angled away from road edges to divert road drainage water off the road into undisturbed vegetation.
S Licence (Forest Utilisation)
A Forest Produce Licence that gives authority to cut or dig and/or take forest produce for commercial purposes that typically extends over multiple years. An outcome of the 1986 Timber Industry Strategy.
Salination (Forest Management)
Process by which the concentration of salt in soil increases.
Salvage harvesting (Forest Utilisation)
Harvesting of forest produce to recover a resource that would otherwise be lost as result of damage such as fire, pests or disease.
Sapling (Forest Resource Inventory)
A regrowth tree 5 - 12 m tall.
Sapwood (Forest Utilisation)
1. The outer, light-coloured layers of tissue in a woody plant, consisting of living cells. Sapwood conducts water, stores food and provides mechanical support for the plant. It is usually paler then heartwood.
2. Outer layers of wood which, in a growing tree, contain living cells and reserve materials such as starch. Under most conditions, the sapwood is paler in colour and more susceptible to decay than heartwood.
Sawlog (Forest Utilisation)
A log considered suitable in size and quality for producing sawn timber.
Sawmill (Forest Utilisation)
A manufacturing plant in which sawlogs are converted to sawn timber by running them through a series of saws
Sawmill residue (Forest Utilisation)
Material left following the processing of sawlogs into sawn timber.
Sawn timber (Forest Utilisation)
Timber finished to size with a saw.
Scarf (Forest Utilisation)
A wedge removed at the base of a tree by the faller to assist in directional tree felling..
Sclerophyll (of trees) (Forest Management)
Refers to plants and vegetation, such as eucalypts and acacias, which have tough leaves adapted to arid climates.
Seasonal Exclusion Recreation
Exclusions that limit public access over a defined seasonal period (ie. winter) on a rolling annual
Seasoned timber (Forest Utilisation)
Timber that has been dried so that the maximum moisture content anywhere in the piece does not exceed 15%.
Seasoning (Forest Utilisation)
Drying timber to a moisture content appropriate to the conditions and purposes for which it is to be used.
Secretary (Forest Management)
As defined in Section 3 of the Conservation, Forests and Lands Act 1987, is the body corporate established by Part 2 of the Act, that is, the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources or its successors.
Sedimentation (Forest Management)
The settling of small soil particles in water. The pollution of streams and water bodies by sedimentary runoff.
Seed Crop Density (Silviculture)
An indication of the potential availability of seed of a particular species in a given area.
Seed extraction (Silviculture)
The artificial process of releasing and collecting seeds from a capsule or cone. (Usually done in a heated kiln).
Seed kiln (Silviculture)
A building containing machinery for seed extraction by heating (fan-forced heated air) and agitation (e.g. cage type tumbler) of seed-bearing capsules.
Seed trap (Silviculture)
A device for catching seeds falling on an area. (In Victorian, forestry funnel-shaped traps with a catching area of 1m x1 m are often used to determine quantity and timing of seedfall for regeneration.)
Seed Tree (Silviculture)
A tree left standing following harvesting to naturally regenerate the site by seed released from the crown.
Seed Tree System (Silviculture)
An even-aged silvicultural system in which all live trees are felled apart from a number of uniformly distributed trees retained to provide seed for regeneration, and of habitat. Seed trees generally comprise 10-15% of the basal area of the original stand.
The soil or forest floor on which seeds fall.
A plant originating from seed, generally aged up to about 3 years.
Seedling Percent (Silviculture)
The number of surviving seedlings one year after sowing as a percentage of the number of viable seeds sown.
Selection System (Silviculture)
A silvicultural system used to harvest and regenerate particular forest types. Trees are harvested either singly or in small groups at intervals indefinitely. Regeneration is established continually in the gaps produced and an uneven-aged stand is maintained.
Seral Stage (Forest Management)
A plant community that occurs at a particular stage of succession, which is the gradual change in the species composition of a community until it reaches a stable state composition if left undisturbed.
Shake (Forest Utilisation)
Partial or complete longitudinal separation or breakage of the wood fibres caused by stresses in the standing tree to by felling and handling the log. It is not caused by shrinkage during drying.
Shelterwood System (Silviculture)
A silvicultural system used for harvesting and regenerating forests or stands . It consists of the removal of a proportion of the mature trees (‘regeneration cut’) to allow the establishment of essentially even-aged regeneration under sheltered conditions, followed by later felling of the remainder of the mature (seed) trees (‘removal cut’).
Shrinkage (Forest Utilisation)
The reduction in dimension or volume that takes place in timber when the moisture content is reduced below fibre saturation point, expressed as a percentage of the original dimensions or volume. Linear shrinkage occurs in three directions: radial, tangential and longitudinal.
Sidecast Material (Roading)
The soil and rock debris that accumulated downhill of road construction operations conducted across moderate to steep side-slopes.
Significant Environmental Aspects (SEA’s) (Environmental Management System)
See Environmental Aspects
Sills or abutments (Roading)
Logs embedded in a stream bank to act as lateral supports for a bridge.
The biological, physical and environmental factors that influence the growth and management of a
The theory and practice of managing forest establishment, composition, growth and quality, to
achieve specified objectives.
Single Exclusion Recreation
Exclusions that limit public access for a specific one-off period as a result of a specific incident (ie. fire, flood, vandalism).
Single Tree Selection (Silviculture)
An uneven-aged silvicultural system involving the felling of scattered mature individual trees, at intervals (generally 10 - 15 years) over the rotation. Regeneration is largely from lignotubers and coppice.
Site Index (Silviculture)
The relationship between the heights and ages of the dominant and co-dominant trees in a stand at a particular age, used as a measure of the amount of timber that could be produced from the stand.
Site Preparation (Silviculture)
The preparation of the ground to provide conditions suitable for regeneration from seed or by planting seedlings.
Site Quality (Silviculture)
The potential of the site to grow trees/timber. A function of soil quality, rainfall and aspect.
Sites of Significance (Forest Management)
DEPI has identified Sites of Significance for Rainforest across Victoria. These sites range from regional to national significance. Criteria for Site determination includes ecological integrity and viability, richness and diversity, rarity, representation, evolutionary development and scientific reference and education.
Skidder (Forest Utilisation)
A rubber tyred tractor for dragging felled logs to a loading area.
Slash (Forest Management)
The leaves, twigs, branches and bark left on a coupe after logs have been cut from trees and
Sliced veneer (Forest Utilisation)
Veneer that is sliced off a log or flitch with a knife.
Sloping grain (Forest Utilisation)
The spiral distortion of the grain along the length of the log.
Small end diameter under bark (SEDUB) (Forest Utilisation)
Diameter of a log excluding the bark, measured by averaging two diameter measurements taken at right angles to each other across the small end of the log.
Snig (Forest Utilisation)
To tow or winch logs along the ground from stump to landing.
Snig track (Forest Utilisation)
A track along which logs are snigged, usually from the felling point to a nearby landing.
Snigging (Forest Utilisation)
The method of removing logs from site after felling operations, by dragging.
Softwood (Forest Management)
1. Timber of coniferous trees, irrespective of physical hardness. Includes pines and cypresses.
2. Timber from cone-bearing trees (botanically classified as Gynosperm), such as conifers, irrespective of the physical softness of the timber, also used to refer to trees that have such timber.
Soil erosion hazard (Forest Utilisation)
Classification of the erosion potential of a soil.
Soil permeability (Forest Utilisation)
Ability of soil to absorb water.
Spatial data (Forest Resource Inventory)
The information seen on a map - data that area geographically located in space by a coordinate
Special Management Zone (Forest Management)
The Special Management Zone will be managed to conserve specific features, while catering for timber production and other utilisation activities under certain conditions.
Special Protection Zone (Forest Management)
The Special Protection Zone can be managed for conservation, and timber harvesting will be excluded.
Species (Forest Management)
A group of organisms that are biologically capable of breeding and producing fertile offspring. It is the lowest normal taxonomic classification in use.
Split (Forest Utilisation)
A defect that occurs when tensile stresses cause the wood fibres to separate and form cracks. Splits are cracks that extend through a piece.
A dead tree that is still standing.
Stain (Forest Utilisation)
Discolouration of wood fibres that can be a defect in appearance grade timber.
Stand (Forest Resource Inventory)
A group of trees in a forest that can be distinguished from other groups on the basis of age, species composition, condition etc.
Stand Condition (Forest Resource Inventory)
The health, age and size class distribution, and stocking of a forest stand.
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) (Environmental Management System)
Developed for key forest activities and their components. SOPs document the way we conduct our operational activities, meet the organisation legal requirements, the environmental policy, environmental objectives and targets and minimise any adverse environmental impacts. They provide a consistent approach to follow when undertaking a particular activity in State forest.
A software program for predicting forest growth and timer yields, often used for E. regnans, E. delegatensis and E. sieberi forests in Victoria.
State (Forest Management)
The Crown in the right of the State of Victoria.
State Forest (Forest Management)
1. As defined in section 3 of the Forests Act 1958. State forest comprises publicly owned land which is managed for the conservation of flora and fauna; for the protection of water catchments and water quality; for the provision of timber and other forest products on a sustainable basis; for the protection of landscape, archaeological and historical values; and to provide recreational and educational issues.
2. A form of public land tenure in Victoria; managed by the Department of Environment and Primary Industries for recreation, biodiversity, cultural heritage, forest products like timber, catchment protection, research and education.
State forest Environmental Management System (Environmental Management System)
Based on ISO 14001, ensures that an organisation understands and manages environmental risks associated with its activities, it is often used as the foundation for many forest certification
State Park (Forest Management)
Land described as State park on Schedule Two B of the National Parks Act 1975. These are generally tracts of land containing one or more land types complementing those found in national parks to provide a system representing the major land types of the state.
Stem injection (Silviculture)
Insertion of a herbicide into a cut or cuts made in the trunk of a tree in order to kill or stress the tree.
Stewardship (Sustainable Forest Management)
The science, art and skill of responsible and accountable management of resources.
The density of any given forest stand, expressed in terms of: the number of trees per hectare, the basal area per hectare, or the percentage of survey plots that contain at least one acceptable seedling.
Stone (Forest Management)
Sandstone, freestone or other building stone; or basalt, granite, limestone or rock of any kind ordinarily used for building, manufacturing, road making construction purposes; or quartz (other than quartz crystals); or slate or gravel; or clay (other than fine clay, bentonite or kaolin); or sand, earth or soil; or other similar materials.
Straight grained (Forest Utilisation)
Timber in which the fibres run parallel to the axis of the piece.
Strata (Forest Management)
1. The various vegetation levels of the forest eg overwood, understorey, midstorey.
2. Classification of forest based on height, age and species composition. (Strata is the plural of Stratum)
The storage of seeds on cold moist conditions for a period of time in order to break dormancy. (For example, Alpine Ash seeds need about 6 weeks at 4 deg C).
Stream (Forest Management)
The watercourse created by channelled surface runoff water as it leaves a catchment area. The flow of water in streams may be permanent or temporary.
Streamside Reserve (Forest Management)
A strip of vegetation retained along a stream and extending out at least 20 m (measured horizontally) from its bank. The actual width of the reserve will be determined by the width of the saturated stream flat, the nature of the forest operation to be undertaken in the adjacent forest, and the ground slope.
Strength group (Forest Utilisation)
Species of timber are classified into groups according to mechanical properties of the wood of that species and Australian Standard AS 2878, Timbers – Classification into Strength Group. There are seven strength groups for unseasoned timber (S1 the strongest to S7 the weakest) and eight for seasoned timber (SD1 the strongest and SC8 the weakest).
Logs or beams used to form the span of a bridge.
Structural Composition (Forest Management)
A means of classifying vegetation according to age, height, and dominant overstorey species.
Structural timber (Forest Utilisation)
Timber to be used in construction where its strength is the controlling element in its selection and use.
Stumpage (Forest Utilisation)
The value of forest produce in the forest.
Sub-dominant (Forest Resource Inventory)
A sub-dominant crown is one where the area occupied by the tree crowns of the upper stratum occupies 11%-30% of the total crown cover of the stand.
Succession (Forest Management)
The progressive change of species composition within a stand over time. If left undisturbed this succession will continue to a climax where the species composition will remain largely unchanged.
Surface check (Forest Utilisation)
A separation of fibres along the grain forming a fissure, but nor extending through the piece from face to face. Surface checks commonly resulting from stresses built up during seasoning. They run radially, across the growth rings.
Surfaced Road (Roading)
A road that has been covered with a layer of gravel or crushed rock to improve its stability and traction, particularly in wet weather.
Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) (Sustainable Forest Management)
A universally agreed upon definition does not exist. However, for the purposes of several regional and global processes, the following working definition of sustainable (Forest Management) is often used: The stewardship and use of forests and forest land in a way, and at a rate, that maintains their biodiversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and their potential to fulfil, now and in the future, relevant ecological, economic and social functions, at local, national, and global levels, and that does not cause damage to other ecosystems. NOTE These needs are often specified as for forest products and services, such as wood and wood products, water, fodder, medicine, fuel, shelter, employment, recreation, habitats for wildlife, landscape diversity, carbon sinks and
reservoirs, and for other forest products.
Sustainable Yield (Forest Management)
1. The sustainable yield of a forest is the maximum level of commercial timber which can be maintained in perpetuity under a given management regime. In Victoria sustainable yield is specified in legislation as the rate of harvest that can be maintained for a defined period (usually 10 years). This figure may increase in the future if the condition of the forest is improved but should not decrease except in the case of a catastrophic even such as fire.
2. Rate of harvest that can be maintained for a defined period in the future (usually ten years). This figure may increase in the future if the condition of the forest is improved but should not decrease except in the case of a catastrophic even such as fire. The yield that a forest has the potential to produce continuously at a given intensity of management. Management to achieve a sustainable yield implies continuous timber production so planned as top achieve, at the earliest practical time, a balance between the volume incremented and the volume harvested.
Tangential (Forest Utilisation)
Coincident with a tangent at the circumference of a tree or log, or parallel to such a tangent. In practice it often means coincident with a growth ring.
Taper (Forest Utilisation)
Reducing gradually in width or diameter.
Temporary Road (Roading)
A timber-extraction road constructed specifically for use during the harvesting operation and closed at the completion of harvesting. It is generally a short length of road leading from a permanent timber-extraction road to a landing or series of landings in one or more harvesting coupes.
Temporary streams (Forest Management)
These streams display a defined stream-bed, obvious incision and distinctive riparian vegetation, and carry water at wetter times of the year.
The treating of a forest stand to protect, maintain, or improve its stand health and/or timber production potential.
Tension (Forest Utilisation)
A state or condition of being pulled or stretched by force.
The removal of part of a stand , with the aim of increasing the growth rate and/or health of the retained trees, but not getting regeneration.
Thinning From Above (Silviculture)
Removing the larger and well developed trees from a stand with the aim of allowing the smaller stems to increase their growth.
Thinning From Below (Silviculture)
Removing the smaller and poorly formed trees from a stand and allowing the larger better formed stems to increase their growth.
Thinning, longwood (Silviculture)
Thinning operation where trees are removed from the stump to the landing in long log (or tree) lengths, generally using a grapple skidder.
Thinning, motor-manual (Silviculture)
Thinning operation where trees are felled and cross-cut by manually-operated chainsaws, then are usually extracted by a tractor of some type.
Thinning, pre-commercial (Silviculture)
See Early Spacing
Thinning, shortwood (Silviculture)
Thinning operation where trees are removed from the stump to the landing in short log lengths (<5-6 m), generally using a forwarder.
Thinning, Strip (Silviculture)
Thinning of forest stands by complete removal of all trees in strips (generally parallel).
Thinning, uniform (Silviculture)
Thinning operation in which most final crop trees are retained because straight outrows are not used.
Threatened (fauna) (Forest Management)
A collective term used to denote taxa that are Extinct, critically endangered, endangered, Vulnerable, near threatened, data deficient, or conservation dependent.
Threatening Process (Potentially Threatening Process) (Forest Management)
A process which may have the capability to threaten the survival, abundance or evolutionary development of any taxon or community of flora or fauna. A potentially threatening process is eligible for listing in the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 if, in the absence of appropriate management, it poses or has the potential to pose a significant threat to the survival or evolutionary development of a range of flora or fauna.
Tight gum vein (Forest Utilisation)
Ribbon of gum or kino between growth rings that is bridged radially at close intervals by woody tissue.
Tile (Forest Resource Inventory)
Timber (Forest Management)
1. A general term used to describe standing trees or felled logs before their processing into forest produce.
2. The general term used to describe natural or sawn wood in a form suitable for building and other purposes.
Timber Extraction (Roading) (Roading)
The Roading of areas of forest for the primary purpose of extracting or carting timber from the forest.
Timber Growing (Forest Management)
Includes regeneration, reforestation, and tending of trees and tree crops.
Timber harvesting (Forest Utilisation)
The snigging, preparing, sorting, loading or carting of trees or parts of tress which have been felled or which are fallen.
Timber Harvesting Contractor (Forest Utilisation)
Person or organisation carrying out harvesting or cartage operations.
Timber Release Plan (Forest Utilisation)
Plan produced by VicForests and approved by the Secretary in accordance with part 5 of the Sustainable Forests (Timber) Act 2004. The TRP defines the stand type, location and timing of timber harvesting operations and roading activities over a five (5) year duration. Timber resources are vested in VicForests on publication of a notice of approval of the TRP in the Government Gazette.
Timber Stand Improvement (TSI) (Silviculture)
The selective removal of mature and senescent trees from established stands of regrowth, with the aim of releasing the regrowth from competition.
Top point Mensuration
The highest point measured by the SFRI on the stem of a tree. This the point above which there are no merchantable wood products.
Total merchantable volume Mensuration
The total amount of available, merchantable wood.
Tree (Forest Utilisation)
A perennial plant having a self-supporting woody stem or trunk and which has the potential to grow >5 metres.
Tree height (Forest Resource Inventory)
TREEMAP (Forest Resource Inventory)
An inventory stem profiling technique for describing and recording the external features of standing
Trees (Forest Management)
Includes trees, shrubs, bushes, seedlings, saplings and reshoots whether alive or dead of any genus, species or variety usually growing in a forest and includes every part of such tree.
Turbidity (Forest Management)
A measure of how "dirty" the water is in a stream or lake. The higher the turbidity the "dirtier" the water.
Understorey (Forest Management)
The layer of vegetation, eg trees, shrubs and ferns, that grows below the canopy formed by the tallest trees in the forest.
Uneven-aged Stand (Forest Resource Inventory)
A Forest stand with trees of three or more distinct age classes, either mixed or in small groups.
Unseasoned timber (Forest Utilisation)
Timber in which the average moisture content exceeds 25%.
Unstocked Site (Silviculture)
A site previously well forested with timber-producing eucalypt species which have been disturbed by natural or artificial agencies and, as a result, the eucalypt stocking is nil or below acceptable standards.
Utilisation Procedures (Forest Utilisation)
1. A document setting out the environmental and operational requirements that must be followed for timber harvesting and associated activities in State forest.
2. A document that provides detailed prescriptions for timber harvesting activities as required by the Code of Forest Practices.
Utilisation (Roading) Charge (Roading)
A charge on all licensees extracting forest produce to cover the cost of constructing and maintaining road access in the forest. In the case of logs, it is expressed as a rate per cubic metre gross or per tonne.
Value (Forest Management)
A principle, standard, or quality considered worthwhile or desirable. In sustainable forest management, values relate to the ecological, economic, and social aspects of forests and their uses.
Value adding (Forest Utilisation)
The increased value of forest produce as a result of processing; producing a product of higher quality and having more monetary value.
Vegetation Type (Forest Management)
An aggregate of plant species, such as an Ecological Vegetation Class recognised by DEPI, which consistently occur together in the landscape and provide a convenient descriptive unit.
Veneer (Forest Utilisation)
A thin layer or sheet of wood.
Veneer log (Forest Utilisation)
Log suitable for the production of veneer.
Verification (Sustainable Forest Management)
The process of controlling that specified requirements are duly and credibly met. Note: It forms the basis for certification.
Veteran Trees (Forest Resource Inventory)
Large, living, old trees (usually more than 100 cm in diameter) displaying features of senescence and in which the crowns are in visible decline and contain obvious hollows. These trees are of the late-mature or senescing growth stage and are generally over 250 years old.
Viability, Seed (Silviculture)
The number of viable (i.e. have potential to germinate) seeds per kilogram of seed and chaff.
VicForests (Forest Utilisation)
A state owned enterprise responsible for the sustainable harvest and commercial sale of forest
produce in eastern Victoria.
Victorian Environment Assessment Council (VEAC) (Forest Management)
The Victorian Environment Assessment Council (VEAC) is appointed under the Victorian Environment Assessment Council Act 2001. It provides independent and strategic advice to the Government of Victoria on matters relating to the protection and ecologically sustainable management of the environment and natural resources of the State of Victoria.
The health and vitality of tree growth.
Visual Management System (Forest Management)
Used to assess the implications of management on landscape values. The system identifies and maps areas into Landscape Management Zones using the criteria of Scenic Quality Class (presence of unique, natural or diverse features), Public Sensitivity Levels (level of use of nearby recreation routes and sites) and Seen Area Distance Zones (proximity to these routes and sites).
A custom designed program that derives the sawlog volume from data collected by TREEMAP.
Vulnerable Forest Ecosystem (Forest Management)
A vulnerable forest ecosystem is defined as one which, within the next 25 years, is likely to
become endangered unless the circumstances and factors threatening its extent, survival or
evolutionary development cease to operate.
Vulnerable Species (Forest Management)
A taxon is vulnerable when it is not critically endangered or endangered but is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild in the medium-term future.
Wane (Forest Utilisation)
The presence of original underbark surface with or without bark on any face or edge of a piece of timber.
Want (Forest Utilisation)
The absence of wood, other than wane, from the arris or surface of a piece of timber.
Warp (Forest Utilisation)
Any variation from a true and plane surface. It includes bow, cup, twist and is often caused by irregular seasoning.
Water Basin (Forest Management)
A geographical unit, defined by the physical boundaries of its watershed, it provides a natural division for assessing the environmental impact of human activities.
Water Supply Catchment (Forest Management)
A catchment from which water is used for domestic water supply purposes.
Watershed (Forest Management)
A natural boundary separating the headwaters of different watercourses or river systems.
Wavy figure (Forest Utilisation)
Markings in the form of waves or undulations. Figures with large undulations are described as wavy, while others with small, irregular undulations are curly, and those with small, regular undulations are fiddleback.
Weed (Forest Management)
Any plant that survives in an area where it is harmful or troublesome to the land use or values.
Weighbridge (Forest Utilisation)
Device for measurement of the weight of forest produce on a truck.
Wetlands (Forest Management)
Areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres.
Wilderness (Forest Management)
Land that, together with its plant and animal communities, is in a state that has not been substantially modified by, and is remote from, the influences of European settlement or is capable of being restored to such a state; is of sufficient size to make its maintenance in such a state feasible; and is capable of providing opportunities for solitude and self-reliant recreation.
Wilderness Quality (Forest Management)
A measure of differing levels of human impact on the natural environment, as part of a continuum of remote and natural conditions varying from pristine to urban. Wilderness quality is measured in terms of four variables (The Lesslie indicators of wilderness quality): apparent naturalness; biophysical naturalness; remoteness from access; and remoteness from settlement.
Wildlife Corridor (Forest Management)
1. A strip of forest of varying width reserved from harvesting, to facilitate fauna movement including gene movement between patches of forest of varying ages and stages of development.
2. Linear reserve within forest to facilitate fauna movement.
A roughly linear heap of slash or vegetation produced from clearing or site preparation operations.
Tree or trees blown down and/or broken off by strong winds. Syn. blowdown
Wood (Forest Utilisation)
The hard, fibrous inner part of tree trunks, branches and stems; tissue that lies underneath the
bark of a plant; a source of timber.
Wood Utilisation Plan (Forest Utilisation)
Plan produced by the Department of Environment and Primary Industries that defines the type, quantity, location and timing of timber harvesting and (Roading) activities over a three year period.
Woodchip (Forest Utilisation)
A type of forest product commonly produced as a by product of harvesting and sawmilling.
Work Centre (Forest Management)
An NRE office located away from the FMA or regional office, from which Forest Management and works operations are carried out.
World Heritage (Forest Management)
Areas deemed to have universal value for humankind under an international convention to which Australia is a signatory.
Xeric (Forest Management)
Plants adapted to survive on dry sites, by storing water, in the case of succulents, or by the ability to recover from dehydration, as in the case of desert shrubs.
Woody tissue in a tree or shrub that conducts water from the root system up to the leaves.
Yield Curves (Forest Resource Inventory)
A yield curve defines the volumes of logs available (in a particular forest type and productivity class) at different ages for a particular silvicultural regime.